Home Environmental Health & Climate Change Nepal National Adaptation Plan, 2021-2050 [Summary for Policymakers]

Nepal National Adaptation Plan, 2021-2050 [Summary for Policymakers]

by Public Health Update


The National Adaptation Plan has been approved on 28 October 2021 by the Council of Ministers of the Government of Nepal.

The NAP sets out priority programmes in the nine thematic sectors as outlined in the National Climate Change Policy (2019). The programmes include adaptation actions that are best able to address climate vulnerabilities and risks in the short (2025), medium (2030), and long-term (2050); as well as adaptation actions that contribute to the achievement of national economic and development priorities. A total of 64 priority programmes were identified in the Nepal NAP. The total budget of Nepal NAP implementation is USD 47.4 billion to implement priority programmes until 2050. Nepal will contribute USD 1.5 billion and external support totaling USD 45.9 billion is required to implement the NAP to 2050. The government requires USD 2.1 billion per year for the delivery of adaptation services through the implementation of NAP for medium term.


The institutions involved in the implementation of the NAP process are the Environmental Protection and Climate Change Management National Council, Inter-Ministerial Climate Change Coordination Committee, Ministry of Forests and Environment, National Planning Commission, Thematic and Cross Cutting Working Groups, Province Climate Change Coordination Committee, sectoral and provincial ministries, local climate change management committees including academia, development partners, occupational federations, non-state stakeholders, media and private sector.

On behalf of the government, MoFE, the climate change focal point, is responsible for reviewing and reporting on the implementation of the NAP. Nepal NAP also serves as the instrument of adaptation communication. A review of the implementation of the NAP and adaptation interventions will take place in every five years. The Nepal NAP will also be reviewed and updated in 2031, at that time the long-term programmes will be revisited and restructured to reflect changes in the country’s economy, development, policy framework, international commitments, and assessed climate change hazards, vulnerabilities, and risks. Institutional arrangements, monitoring and review framework and financial strategy are being developed separately as the integral suite of Nepal NAP.


To contribute to the socio-economic prosperity of the nation by building a climate-resilient society and reducing the risk of climate change impacts on people and ecosystems through the integration of adaptation across sectors and levels of government.


  • Build the adaptive capacity and resilience of key natural, social, and economic sectors vulnerable to and at risk of climate change, and service providers.
  • Integrate climate change issues into policies, strategies, plans, and programs of all sectors and at local, provincial, and federal levels emphasizing Gender Equality, Social Inclusion, Livelihoods and Governance (GESILG) concerns.
  • Ensure equitable resource mobilization and distribution of resources for climate change adaptation through national and international financing, research, technology, and extension services related to climate change adaptation.


  • Responsiveness to the actual adaptation needs through the identification of actions that reduce the adverse impacts of climate change and maximize resilience, informed by a robust body of research and analysis undertaken through the NAP process.
  • Policy coherence with:
    – National policies, strategies, plans, development goals, and priorities; and International commitments under the UN conventions including the UNFCCC, Paris Agreement, SDGs, Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, UNCCD, and UNCBD.
  • Integration of climate change adaptation in the planning, budgeting, and implementation of actions at the three levels of government – federal, provincial, and local.
  • Gender responsive and social inclusive actions to ensure that people of all genders are engaged in all stages of climate adaptation planning, budgeting, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation.
  • Multi Stakeholder engagement, coordination, and cooperation to promote transparency, better decision making, and enhanced implementation of adaptation.
  • Ecosystem integrity to maintain naturally biodiverse, healthy, and resilient ecosystems.
  • Leave-No-One-Behind’ through commitment to an inclusive NAP process that prioritizes planning and implementation of adaptation actions by identifying who is left behind, identifying measures to meet their needs, and generating evidence and data to monitor progress.

Priority Adaptation Programmes and Budgets

Sector: Agriculture and Food Security (11.2 billion USD)

  1. Programme on Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Security, and Climate Resilient Health and Hygiene.
  2. Commercial Animal Husbandry for Climate Resilient Rural Livelihoods (753 Model Demonstration Projects).
  3. Development of Insurance, and Community and Peasant Friendly Climate Induced Risk Sharing Model and Expansion in both Agriculture and Livestock.
  4. Genetic Resource Conservation Programme for Climate Resilient Agriculture in Nepal.
  5. Enhancing Agriculture Productivity through Building Climate Resilient Water Management Systems.
  6. Climate Smart Transformative Collective Agriculture Promotion in the Hills and Mountains.
  7. Integrated Soil and Nutrient Management for Resilient Agriculture Strengthening Climate Services and Agriculture Information System.
  8. National Capacity Building of Agriculture and Livestock Institutions and Professionals on Climate Change Adaptation Research, Planning and Implementation.

Sector: Forest, Biodiversity and Watershed Conservation (8.7 billion USD)

  1. Forests Fire Preparedness, Prevention and Control.
  2. Karnali Watershed Management Programme for Reducing Climate Risks and Vulnerabilities and Promoting Irrigation Facilities in the Downstream.
  3. Integrated Sub-Watershed Management for Climate Resilience and Increased Water Availability and Agricultural Productivity.
  4. Improvement of Forest Health and Restoration of Rare, Endangered, Endemic, and Threatened Species for Building Resilient Forest.
  5. Restoration of Habitats and Strengthening Ecological Connectivity for Wildlife and Biodiversity.
  6. Promotion of Multiple Uses of Protected Areas and Natural Heritage and Generation of Climate Adaptation Services by Maximizing the Utility of Protected Areas.
  7. Control of Climate Induced Disasters and Extension of the Network of Protected Areas for Resilient Ecosystems.
  8. Development and Strengthening of Ponds/Lakes in Community Forests for Resilient Biodiversity (One Community Forest- One Wetland).
  9. Wetlands Development, Conservation and Management at the Foothills of Chure.
  10. Integrated Green Economy and Green Job Promotion Programme through Sustainable Forest Management and Circular Economy in the Hills and Mountains.
  11. Upland Conservation and Climate Resilient Livelihoods Programme in High Mountains.

Sector: Water Resources and Energy (5.35 billion USD)

  1. National Capacity Building on Policy Reform, Bridging Climate Information Gaps, Promoting Climate-Informed Decision Making, and Developing Climate-Smart Design and Guidelines for Water Resources Infrastructure.
  2. Promoting Energy Mix System for Industrial Sustainability and Climate Resilient Livelihoods.
  3. Establishing GLOF Risk Reduction and Early Warning Systems (EWS) in Glaciated River Basins (Gandaki, Koshi, Karnali).
  4. Promoting Water Pumping Technology in Water Scarce Areas (To Address Water Stress for Food Security in Hilly Areas).
  5. Promoting Climate Resilient Renewable Energy in Rural Vulnerable Settlements and Institutions.
  6. Constructing Climate Resilient Check Dams on the Rivers of Nepal to Sustain Life.
  7. Programme on Sustainability of Run-of-River Systems and Backing by Reservoir Systems at Feasible Locations Together with Climate Change Awareness Raising and Capacity Building of Hydropower Developers and Stakeholders.
  8. Efficient Energy and Clean Technology Development and Retrofitting to Build Resilient Systems and Infrastructure.

Sector:Rural and Urban Settlements (2.85 billion USD)

  1. Promoting the Circular Economy for Sustainable Urban Development (Piloting, Integration, Capacity Building, and Implementation).
  2. Developing Integrated Settlement and Urbanization Models for Climate Risk Reduction and Supplying Climate Adaptation Services through Nature-based Solutions and Policy Reform.
  3. Updating and Promoting Climate Resilient Building Designs, Codes, Practices and Construction Technologies and National Capacity Building to Further Implementation.

Sector: Industry, Transport and Physical Infrastructure (3.05 billion USD)

  1. Developing and Strengthening Capacity, Awareness, Resources (Databases), Institutions, Technologies and Policies for Building Climate Resilient and Environment Friendly Industries, Transport Systems and Physical Infrastructure.
  2. Diversifying the Energy Supply for Industrial Districts.
  3. Developing and Promoting Clean Energy-based Transportation Systems through National Capacity Building and Policy Reform.
  4. Developing Climate Resilient Infrastructure Systems for Climate Risks, Hazards and Pandemics.
  5. Upgrading, Maintaining, and Relocating Vulnerable Industries, Physical Infrastructure, and Transport Sector to Increase Resilience to Climate Risks.

Sector: Tourism, Natural and Cultural Heritage (1.13 billion USD)

  1. Climate Resilient Tourism for Ecological Sustainability and Economic Prosperity.
  2. Climate Risk and Tourism Information System for Resilient, Safe and Sustainable Tourism.
  3. Establishment and Operation of Emergency Relief and Rescue Services in Adventure Tourism.
  4. Regulatory Framework Development, Awareness Raising and Capacity Building on Climate Proofing, Protection, Retrofitting and Use of Natural and Cultural Heritage.
  5. Develop Climate Resilient Infrastructure and Explore and Enhance Knowledge and Capacities for Resilient Mountain Tourism.
  6. Community-Based Adaptation through Eco- and Cultural Tourism.
  7. Promotion of ‘One Local Level One Tourism Destination’ and Planning for Functional Climate Resilient Tourism Destinations (Piloting, Demonstration and Replication. One Project in each Province)
  8. Diversifying and Promoting Alternative Destinations and Products for Climate Resilient Tourism Business.

Sector: Health, Drinking Water and Sanitation (4.75 billion USD)

  1. Capacity Building of Health and Hygiene Service Providers (Institution and Personnel) on Climate Resilient Health and Hygiene Service Planning and Implementation.
  2. Climate Change Resilience Development through Capacity Building, Innovation, Improvement and Construction of WASH Services and Facilities.
  3. Strengthening of Climate Sensitive Disease Surveillance System with Emergency Preparedness and Response.
  4. Health Promoting Cities: Health, Environment and Life (HEAL)
  5. Promotion and Conservation of Water Sources along with Watershed Management for Sustainable Water Supply Service.
  6. Policy Reform, Strategy Development and National Level Awareness Raising on Climate Resilient Health and WASH Programme, Planning, Operationalization and Sustainability.
  7. Research, Innovation and Development of Climate Resilient Measures/Technologies for Water Supply, Sanitation and Health Systems.

Sector: Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (8.05 billion USD)

  1. Building Climate Resilience by Developing and Harmonizing DRRM and CCA at Federal to Local Levels through Policy Reforms (Integration of DRR in Local Adaptation Plans).
  2. Strengthening Adaptive Social Protection/ Shock Responsive Practices Initiatives for Transferring Climate Risk.
  3. Maintenance, Upgradation and Strengthening Early Warning Systems and MultiHazard Monitoring to Facilitate Climate Adaptive Function of Key Economic and Service Sectors
  4. Development of Federal and Provincial Strategy and Action Plans on Control of Climate Induced (Primarily Water Borne) Disasters in the Forest Areas of Nepal and Phase-Wise Implementation Under the Leadership of Forest Authorities
  5. Develop Regulatory Framework for Domestic and Industrial Fire Control and Mitigation, and Implementation Strategy and Build National Capacities with Supply of Technology and Equipment.
  6. Promote Culture of Safety and Build Climate Resilience through Climate Risk Sensitive Land Use Plan (RSLUP) Guideline and Standards.

Sector: Gender, Social Inclusion, Livelihoods and Governance (0.7 billion USD)

  1. Strategy and Action Plan on Restrengthening, Establishing and Functionalizing Climate Change Aware Gender Focal Desks in all State and Non-State Institutions (Including Private Organizations).
  2. Building Human Capital for an Inclusive Climate and Disaster Resilient Society through Promoting Safe and Equitable Access to Disaster Reduction Response Services.
  3. Integrating GESI and Climate Foresight in Social Protection and Development Interventions (Piloting and Replication) Enhancing Resilience to Climate Change through GESI Responsive Livelihood Programmes.

Sector: National Capacity Building, Research and Awareness Raising (0.16 billion USD)

  • Continue to Implement the NAP Process including Research on Climate Risks and Vulnerabilities, and Capacity Building of Actors and Stakeholders on Climate Change Matters.
  • Strengthen Capacities of Federal Thematic Ministries and Provincial Governments on Developing and Implementing the NAP Process.
  • Establish and Operationalize Climate Change Data Management System and Programme Monitoring Centre at Federal and Provincial Levels.

NAP SPM Briefing Paper in English: Click here
NAP SPM Briefing Paper in Nepali: Click here 
Press Release on Nepal’s participation in COP26: Click here 

Recommended reading: National Climate Change Policy, 2076 (2019)

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