by Public Health Update

Aahana Sapkota

The 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence is observed each year from 25 November to 10 December. This year the global theme is “Orange the World: Fund, Respond, Prevent, Collect!” Rape is the top incident of Violence Against Women (VAW) in Nepal.

Rape, unlawful sexual activity, involving sexual intercourse, against the will of the victim through force or the threat of force or with an individual who is incapable of giving legal consent because of mental illness, mental deficiency, a person who is beneath a certain age, intoxication, unconsciousness, or deception.

The definition of rape, according to the Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network is:

….. forced sexual intercourse, including vaginal, anal, or oral penetration.”

Rape is often known as “sexual abuse” or “sexual assault”, particularly in the law.

It is important to know that either gender can be the victim of rape. Additionally, both heterosexual and homosexual rapes takes place both inside and outside of relationships, It’s critical to understand that rape is never okay and that no matter the circumstance, rape is never the victim’s fault.


Rape is one of the crimes frequently reported to the Nepal Women Commission (NWC). According to authorities, rape was enlisted as one of the top 10 incidents of violence against women in the NWC report.

According to the police, cases of rape and sexual violence have increased not only in the valley, but also in other parts of the country. The number of reported rape cases continues to rise despite strict laws in Nepal, the latest data from Nepal Police said.

A total of 1137 rape cases were registered in the fiscal year 2016/17 and 1480 were recorded across the country in fiscal year 2017/18. The Nepal Police data suggests that 1623 rape cases were registered across the country in the first eight months of the fiscal year 2018/19. Likewise, approximately per day six and per month 185 rape cases were registered in the Nepal Police.

Each year, the data shows that rape cases have been increasing rapidly. A majority of the rape victim were girls from the age group of 11-16 years, according to the data from the Nepal Police.


Rape can be categorized in different ways: for example, by reference to the situation in which it occurs, by the identity or characteristics of the victim, and by the identity or characteristics of the perpetrator.

The most common types of rape:-

  1. Date Rape: It is unlawful sexual intercourse accomplished by force or fear with a person known to the victim but not related by blood or marriage that can be a classmate, friend, neighbor, date or boyfriend.
  2. Gang Rape: It occurs when a group of people (involving 2 or more is widely reported in many parts of the world) participate in the rape of a single victim.
  3. Spousal Rape/ Marital Rape: It is unwanted sexual act between a married couples or ex-spouse without consent or against a person’s will. Marital rape is considered as a form of domestic violence and sexual abuse.
  4. Rape of a child: It is a form of child sexual abuse when committed by another child, adolescent, parents, close relatives, caregiver, teacher, coaches or those person on whom child is dependent and can result in serious and long-term psychological trauma.
  5. Statutory Rape: It is commonly used name for the criminal offense that occurs when a person has sexual relations with another person who is not old enough to legally consent to having sexual relations.
  6. Serial Rape: It is rape committed by a person over a relatively long period of time and committed on a number of victims by following a specific and predictable pattern of targeting and assaulting victims.
  7. Prison Rape: Rape of prisoners by fellow prisoners or prison guards. Prison rape is mistakenly associated with homosexuality; however it is not but sex, but the exertion of power.
  8. Payback Rape: Rape of a female by group of males, as a revenge for acts committed by her family member with an aim to humiliate her family as a punishment for their prior behavior towards perpetrators.
  9. War Rape: Rapes committed by soldiers or civilians during armed conflict or war. It also covers the situation where girls and women are forced into prostitution or sexual slavery.
  10. Corrective Rape: It is targeted rape against non-heterosexuals as a punishment for violating gender roles. It is a form of hate crime against LGBT individuals, where rapist justifies the act as an acceptable response to the victim’s perceived sexual or gender orientation.
  11. Drug Related Rape: Rape when the perpetrator uses immense amount of drug or alcohol in order to dismiss the survivor’s capacity to provide consent for a sexual assault.


Psychological Impact

  1. Self-blame
  2. Anxiety
  3. Depression
  4. Suicidal tendency
  5. Hyper sexuality
  6. Post-traumatic stress disorder
  7. Sleeping disorder
  8. Substance abuse

Physical Impact

  1. Painful intercourse
  2. Urinary infection
  3. Pregnancy
  4. Sexually transmitted disease

Social Impact

  1. Secondary victimization
  2. Isolation
  3. Victim blaming


Be Alert

  1. Avoid dangerous situation
  2. Avoid isolated areas
  3. Walk with a purpose
  4. Trust your instincts

Be Assertive

  1. State what you want
  2. Remember “No” means “No”
  3. Use confident voice and body posture
  4. Match your body language with words

Be Prepared

  1. Travel with friends
  2. Plan your outing and avoid getting into a bad situation
  3. Stay sober
  4. Take self-defense course
  5. Carry defensive items only if you know to use it



  • First step of recovery is to provide with medical treatment.
  • Family and friends support
  • Counseling
  • Meditation
  • Proper diet, exercise and sleep


  • Stress inoculation therapy
  • Cognitive processing therapy
  • Supportive counseling
  • Prolonged exposure therapy


  • Counseling and support groups
  • Crisis intervention
  • Information about  medical issues
  • Information for family and friends of victims
  • Explanation of criminal justice system
  • Educational materials and courses
  • Legal information and advocacy
  • Medical information, service and advocacy


There are many misguided beliefs or misunderstandings held by people in this world which hamper victims to cope and try to recover.

A woman who gets raped usually deserves it, especially if she has agreed to go out with man.No one deserves to be raped. Going out with man doesn’t mean man has right for rape.  
Women who say “No” really mean “Yes”.Remember that saying “No” always means “No”.
If a woman agrees to allow a man to pay for food, drinks, etc., then it means she owes him sex.Sex is not an implied payback for food or drink no matter how expensive it was.
Women who don’t fight back haven’t been raped.Rape occurs when one is forced to have sex against their will, whether they have decided to fight back or not.
Certain behaviors such as drinking or wearing short dresses make rape a women’s responsibility.Drinking and wearing short dresses are not invitations for sex.  

Written by: Aahana Sapkota, Public Health student, CiST College

Read more articles from Aahana Sapkota: DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE: THE HIDDEN CRISIS

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