Home PH Important Day Sep 26 Every Year !! World Contraception Day

Sep 26 Every Year !! World Contraception Day

by Public Health Update
World Contraception Day (WCD) is annually observed on September 26. This day was observed for the first time in 2007, when it was initiated by coalition of 16 international family planning organizations. 


All international non-governmental organizations, that support observance of World Contraception Day, have a vision of a world where every pregnancy is wanted. Observation of this day raises public awareness of the means of contraception.
WCD’s mission is to improve awareness of contraception and to enable young people to make informed choices on their sexual and reproductive health.

Benefits of family planning / contraception (World Health Organization)
  • Promotion of family planning – and ensuring access to preferred contraceptive methods for women and couples – is essential to securing the well-being and autonomy of women, while supporting the health and development of communities.
  • Preventing pregnancy-related health risks in women: A woman’s ability to choose if and when to become pregnant has a direct impact on her health and well-being. Family planning allows spacing of pregnancies and can delay pregnancies in young women at increased risk of health problems and death from early childbearing. It prevents unintended pregnancies, including those of older women who face increased risks related to pregnancy. Family planning enables women who wish to limit the size of their families to do so. Evidence suggests that women who have more than 4 children are at increased risk of maternal mortality.
    By reducing rates of unintended pregnancies, family planning also reduces the need for unsafe abortion.
  • Reducing infant mortalityFamily planning can prevent closely spaced and ill-timed pregnancies and births, which contribute to some of the world’s highest infant mortality rates. Infants of mothers who die as a result of giving birth also have a greater risk of death and poor health.
  • Helping to prevent HIV/AIDSFamily planning reduces the risk of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV, resulting in fewer infected babies and orphans. In addition, male and female condoms provide dual protection against unintended pregnancies and against STIs including HIV.
  • Empowering people and enhancing educationFamily planning enables people to make informed choices about their sexual and reproductive health. Family planning represents an opportunity for women to pursue additional education and participate in public life, including paid employment in non-family organizations. Additionally, having smaller families allows parents to invest more in each child. Children with fewer siblings tend to stay in school longer than those with many siblings.
  • Reducing adolescent pregnancies
    Pregnant adolescents are more likely to have preterm or low birth-weight babies. Babies born to adolescents have higher rates of neonatal mortality. Many adolescent girls who become pregnant have to leave school. This has long-term implications for them as individuals, their families and communities.
  • Slowing population growth
    Family planning is key to slowing unsustainable population growth and the resulting negative impacts on the economy, environment, and national and regional development efforts.

Contraceptive methods (World Health Organization)

Modern methods

MethodDescriptionHow it worksEffectiveness to prevent pregnancyComments
Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) or “the pill”Contains two hormones (estrogen and progestogen)Prevents the release of eggs from the ovaries (ovulation)>99% with correct and consistent useReduces risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer
92% as commonly used
Progestogen-only pills (POPs) or “the minipill”Contains only progestogen hormone, not estrogenThickens cervical mucous to block sperm and egg from meeting and prevents ovulation99% with correct and consistent useCan be used while breastfeeding; must be taken at the same time each day
90–97% as commonly used
ImplantsSmall, flexible rods or capsules placed under the skin of the upper arm; contains progestogen hormone onlyThickens cervical mucous to block sperm and egg from meeting and prevents ovulation>99%Health-care provider must insert and remove; can be used for 3–5 years depending on implant; irregular vaginal bleeding common but not harmful
Progestogen only injectablesInjected into the muscle every 2 or 3 months, depending on productThickens cervical mucous to block sperm and egg from meeting and prevents ovulation>99% with correct and consistent useDelayed return to fertility (about 1–4 months on the average) after use; irregular vaginal bleeding common, but not harmful
97% as commonly used
Monthly injectables or combined injectable contraceptives (CIC)Injected monthly into the muscle, contains estrogen and progestogenPrevents the release of eggs from the ovaries (ovulation)>99% with correct and consistent useIrregular vaginal bleeding common, but not harmful
97% as commonly used
Combined contraceptive patch and combined contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR)Continuously releases 2 hormones – a progestin and an estrogen- directly through the skin (patch) or from the ring.Prevents the release of eggs from the ovaries (ovulation)The patch and the CVR are new and research on effectiveness is limited. Effectiveness studies report that it may be more effective than the COCs, both as commonly and consistent or correct use.The Patch and the CVR provide a comparable safety and pharmacokinetic profile to COCs with similar hormone formulations.
Intrauterine device (IUD): copper containingSmall flexible plastic device containing copper sleeves or wire that is inserted into the uterusCopper component damages sperm and prevents it from meeting the egg>99%Longer and heavier periods during first months of use are common but not harmful; can also be used as emergency contraception
Intrauterine device (IUD) levonorgestrelA T-shaped plastic device inserted into the uterus that steadily releases small amounts of levonorgestrel each daySuppresses the growth of the lining of uterus (endometrium)>99%Decreases amount of blood lost with menstruation over time; Reduces menstrual cramps and symptoms of endometriosis; amenorrhea (no menstrual bleeding) in a group of users
Male condomsSheaths or coverings that fit over a man’s erect penisForms a barrier to prevent sperm and egg from meeting98% with correct and consistent useAlso protects against sexually transmitted infections, including HIV
85% as commonly used
Female condomsSheaths, or linings, that fit loosely inside a woman’s vagina, made of thin, transparent, soft plastic filmForms a barrier to prevent sperm and egg from meeting90% with correct and consistent useAlso protects against sexually transmitted infections, including HIV
79% as commonly used
Male sterilization (vasectomy)Permanent contraception to block or cut the vas deferens tubes that carry sperm from the testiclesKeeps sperm out of ejaculated semen>99% after 3 months semen evaluation3 months delay in taking effect while stored sperm is still present; does not affect male sexual performance; voluntary and informed choice is essential
97–98% with no semen evaluation
Female sterilization (tubal ligation)Permanent contraception to block or cut the fallopian tubesEggs are blocked from meeting sperm>99%Voluntary and informed choice is essential
Lactational amenorrhea method (LAM)Temporary contraception for new mothers whose monthly bleeding has not returned; requires exclusive or full breastfeeding day and night of an infant less than 6 months oldPrevents the release of eggs from the ovaries (ovulation)99% with correct and consistent useA temporary family planning method based on the natural effect of breastfeeding on fertility
98% as commonly used
Emergency contraception (levonorgestrel 1.5 mg)Progestogen-only pills taken to prevent pregnancy up to 5 days after unprotected sexPrevents ovulationIf all 100 women used progestin-only emergency contraception, one would likely become pregnant.Does not disrupt an already existing pregnancy
Standard Days Method or SDMWomen track their fertile periods (usually days 8 to 19 of each 26 to 32 day cycle) using cycle beads or other aidsPrevents pregnancy by avoiding unprotected vaginal sex during most fertile days.95% with consistent and correct use.Can be used to identify fertile days by both women who want to become pregnant and women who want to avoid pregnancy. Correct, consistent use requires partner cooperation.
88% with common use (Arevalo et al 2002)
Basal Body Temperature (BBT) MethodWoman takes her body temperature at the same time each morning before getting out of bed observing for an increase of 0.2 to 0.5 degrees C.Prevents pregnancy by avoiding unprotected vaginal sex during fertile days99% effective with correct and consistent use.If the BBT has risen and has stayed higher for 3 full days, ovulation has occurred and the fertile period has passed. Sex can resume on the 4th day until her next monthly bleeding.
75% with typical use of FABM (Trussell, 2009)
TwoDay MethodWomen track their fertile periods by observing presence of cervical mucus (if any type color or consistency)Prevents pregnancy by avoiding unprotected vaginal sex during most fertile days,96% with correct and consistent use.Difficult to use if a woman has a vaginal infection or another condition that changes cervical mucus. Unprotected coitus may be resumed after 2 consecutive dry days (or without secretions)
86% with typical or common use. (Arevalo, 2004)
Sympto-thermal MethodWomen track their fertile periods by observing changes in the cervical mucus (clear texture) , body temperature (slight increase) and consistency of the cervix (softening).Prevents pregnancy by avoiding unprotected vaginal sex during most fertile98% with correct and consistent use.May have to be used with caution after an abortion, around menarche or menopause, and in conditions which may increase body temperature.
Reported 98% with typical use (Manhart et al, 2013)

Traditional Methods
Calendar method or rhythm methodWomen monitor their pattern of menstrual cycle over 6 months, subtracts 18 from shortest cycle length (estimated 1st fertile day) and subtracts 11 from longest cycle length (estimated last fertile day)The couple prevents pregnancy by avoiding unprotected vaginal sex during the 1st and last estimated fertile days, by abstaining or using a condom.91% with correct and consistent use.May need to delay or use with caution when using drugs (such as anxiolytics, antidepressants, NSAIDS, or certain antibiotics) which may affect timing of ovulation.
75% with common use
Withdrawal (coitus interruptus)Man withdraws his penis from his partner’s vagina, and ejaculates outside the vagina, keeping semen away from her external genitaliaTries to keep sperm out of the woman’s body, preventing fertilization96% with correct and consistent useOne of the least effective methods, because proper timing of withdrawal is often difficult to determine, leading to the risk of ejaculating while inside the vagina.
73% as commonly used (Trussell, 2009)

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