Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Main findings (Published in The Lancet in November 2018). GBD 2017 provides for the first time an independent estimation of population, for each of 195 countries and territories and the globe, using a standardized, replicable approach, as well as a comprehensive update on fertility. GBD 2017 incorporates major data additions and improvements, using a total of 68,781 data sources in the estimation process.
Global Burden of Disease: A systematic, scientific effort to quantify the comparative magnitude of health loss due to diseases, injuries, and risk factors by age, sex, and geographies for specific points in time.
- In 2017, the top three countries in life expectancy were Singapore (84.8 years), Japan (84.2 years), and Switzerland (84.0 years); lowest were Central African Republic (51.9 years), Lesotho (54.7 years), and Mozambique (58.4 years). However, the question is whether additional years are spent in good health or poor health – global trends in non-communicable diseases (NCDs) indicate that more effort is needed to increase healthy life expectancy.
- Fertility: In 2017, 91 countries have total fertility rates below the replacement rate of 2.05, while the opposite is true in 104 countries where higher total fertility rates which may drive population increases.
- While females tend to live longer than males, many of these additional years are spent in poor health.
- An unintended consequence of greater access to health care globally is increases in mortality from diseases and disorders linked to antibiotic resistance.
- Among age groups, the under-5 age group experienced huge reductions in mortality between 1950 and 2017, while adults have made much less progress, particularly adult males.
- HIV remains a massive public health threat, particularly because global financing has plateaued, domestic health spending has stayed low among high-burden countries, and its incidence has not declined as quickly in younger as in older populations.
- Risk factors: high blood pressure and smoking are leading global risk factors linked to early death and disability at all ages.
- 8. SDGs: Despite progress, achievement of SDGs by 2030 is in doubt. To meet SDGs, there is a need to increase progress on health-related indicators between 2017 and 2030.